Semantics : The meaning of language

Semantics is the study of the meaning of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences. Lexical semantics is the meaning of words and the relationship among words. Sentential semantics is the meaning of syntactic units larger than one word. A sentence may be true or false depending on the situation. Examples :

  • The earth is round. ( tautologies )
  • A bachelor is married. ( contradictions )

Entailment is one sentence entails another if whenever the first sentence is true the second one must be true also. Examples :

  • Siti is eating an apple.
  • Siti is eating a fruit.

Semantics knowledge also tells when words or phrases have more than one meaning or ambiguous.



Syntax : The sentence patterns of language

Syntax is a level of grammar that is specifically refers to the arrangement of words and morphemes in the construction of sentences. It have descriptive syntax and prescriptive syntax. Syntax describe the relationship between the meaning of a particular group of words. Sentences is a string of words that is grammatically complete with at least two component, a subject and a predicate. Constituents are the units being combined to create larger syntactic constructions. A tree diagram with syntactic category information is called phrase structure tree or a constituent structure tree. Transformational rules accounts for relationship between sentences such as declarative and interrogative pairs, including wh questions.

Morphology : Grammatical aspects of language

Morphology is the study of word forms and word classifications. A morpheme is the minimal linguistic unit and is an arbitrary union of a sound and a meaning that cannot be further analyzed (Fromkin,2007).

Examples : one morpheme   :  boy

                     two morpheme   :  boy+ish

                     three morpheme : boy+ish+ness

Phonology : The sounds patterns of language


Phonology is the study of how speech sounds form patterns. Phonology tells us what sounds are in a language and which explains why certain phonetic features are important to identifying a word. In phonology, you will learn the pronunciation of plural morphemes in English and the minimal pair ( two words with different meaning that are identical except for one sound that occurs in the same place in each word ).Phonemes are the basic unit of sound and is sensed in your mind rather than spoken out or heard. The English past tense morpheme also has different pronunciations depending on the last sound of the verb.

Comparison of phonetic and phonology

Phonetics … Phonology …
Is the basis for phonological analysis. Is the basis for further work in morphology, syntax, discourse, and orthography design.
Analyzes the production of all human speech sounds, regardless of language. Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular language by

  • determining which phonetic sounds are significant, and
  • explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native speaker.

Phonetics : The sounds of language

Phonetics is the study of inventory and structure of the sounds of language. Human can produce any number of sounds including those we never heard before. The major phonetic alphabet in use is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). It consist of 3 major classes which are sound producing system, place of articulation and manner of articulation.

Phonetic Chart of IPA Symbols

Studying Sponges

I’ve dedicated my life to studying sponges.

Really. Why?

: D

More English jokes, visit

Learning English British Council

Let’s do it!

Many students confess that they can’t write well in English. There are 10 practical tips that can be practice to improve your writing in English.
1.Read in English
2.Listen to native speakers
3.When writing in English, think in English
5.Trust your gut
7.Have English-speaking friends who are not afraid to correct your mistakes
8.Study spelling and grammar
9.Commas and hyphenation – the tricky buggers
10. Relax

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